In Elasticsearch, to match a given text in a field, you will do it this way:

GET /_search
{
  "query":{
    "match":{
      "country": "France"
    }
  }
}

The must_not bool query

Similarly, to identify records whose field value does NOT match a given query string, you can do so using a must_not boolean query:

GET /_search
{
  "query": {
    "bool": {
      "must_not": [
        {
          "term": {
            "country": "France"
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

If this looks a bit verbose, you can also get the same results using a query_string query.